ROAD SAFETY COUNTRY PROFILE

Photo: Hidajet Delic Degi / World Bank

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina's Road Safety Country Profile

This road safety country data presents information on all pillars of road safety (management, roads, speed, vehicles, road users, and post-crash care), along with information on the current status for each country and region along with extensive information on key risk factors, issues and opportunities.

THE SCALE OF THE ROAD SAFETY CHALLENGE Ref: 1,2,3,4,5
  • 65%

    Percentage of Road Crash Fatalities and Injuries in the economically productive age groups (15 - 64 years.)

  • 4:1

    Ratio of Male to Female Fatalities with the 15 - 49 year age group being most vulnerable to fatalities.

  • 555 life yrs.

    affected due to disability from road crash injuries per 100,000 people.

  • Road crash fatalities and injuries snapshot
    Country Population, 2016: 3,516,816
    Country Reported Fatalities, 2016: 318
    WHO Estimated Fatalities, 2016: 552
    GBD Estimated Fatalities, 2016: 276
    WHO Est. Fatalities per 100,000 Pop., 2016: 15.7
    Estimated Serious Injuries, 2016: 8,280
    Cost of Fatalities and Serious Injuries, 2016: $917 million
    Cost as % of country GDP, 2016: 5.4%
Positioning of Country in Region (Compared to Countries with the Lowest Traffic Fatalities in the Region and Globally)
2016 WHO Estimated Road Fatalities 2016 GBD Estimated Road Fatalities 2016 WHO Estimated Fatality Rate/100,000 pop. 2016 GBD Estimated Fatality Rate/ 100,000 pop. % Trend in Fatality Rate/100,000 (2013-2016) Motorization Registered Vehicles/100,000 pop.
Bosnia and Herzegovina 552 276 15.7 7.99 4.1% 27,816
BEST PERFORMING COUNTRIES IN REGION
Macedonia 134 164 6.4 7.55 5.8% 21,284
Serbia 649 797 7.4 8.94 -6.1% 25,877
BEST PERFORMING COUNTRIES GLOBALLY
Maldives 4 32 0.9 7.25 -4% 21,737
Micronesia 2 16 1.9 15.66 -0.3% 5,406
Kiribati 5 12 4.4 10.4 -5.2% 3,240
West Bank and Gaza Strip 252 0 5.3 0 -5.4% 5,602
2016 WHO Estimated Road Fatalities
Bosnia and Herzegovina 552
BEST PERFORMING COUNTRIES IN REGION
Macedonia 134
Serbia 649
BEST PERFORMING COUNTRIES GLOBALLY
Maldives 4
Micronesia 2
Kiribati 5
West Bank and Gaza Strip 252
2016 GBD Estimated Road Fatalities
Bosnia and Herzegovina 276
BEST PERFORMING COUNTRIES IN REGION
Macedonia 164
Serbia 797
BEST PERFORMING COUNTRIES GLOBALLY
Maldives 32
Micronesia 16
Kiribati 12
West Bank and Gaza Strip 0
2016 WHO Estimated Fatality Rate/100,000 pop.
Bosnia and Herzegovina 15.7
BEST PERFORMING COUNTRIES IN REGION
Macedonia 6.4
Serbia 7.4
BEST PERFORMING COUNTRIES GLOBALLY
Maldives 0.9
Micronesia 1.9
Kiribati 4.4
West Bank and Gaza Strip 5.3
2016 GBD Estimated Road Fatalities
Bosnia and Herzegovina 7.99
BEST PERFORMING COUNTRIES IN REGION
Macedonia 7.55
Serbia 8.94
BEST PERFORMING COUNTRIES GLOBALLY
Maldives 7.25
Micronesia 15.66
Kiribati 10.4
West Bank and Gaza Strip 0
2016 GBD Estimated Road Fatalities
Bosnia and Herzegovina 4.1%
BEST PERFORMING COUNTRIES IN REGION
Macedonia 5.8%
Serbia -6.1%
BEST PERFORMING COUNTRIES GLOBALLY
Maldives -4%
Micronesia -0.3%
Kiribati -5.2%
West Bank and Gaza Strip -5.4%
2016 GBD Estimated Road Fatalities
Bosnia and Herzegovina 27,816
BEST PERFORMING COUNTRIES IN REGION
Macedonia 21,284
Serbia 25,877
BEST PERFORMING COUNTRIES GLOBALLY
Maldives 21,737
Micronesia 5,406
Kiribati 3,240
West Bank and Gaza Strip 5,602
Ⅰ. SAFE SPEEDS Ref: 1,6,7,8
Maximum Speed Limits and Enforcement
50 km/h 80 km/h 130 km/h ManualandAutomated
NATIONAL SPEED LIMIT LAW URBAN ROADS RURAL ROADS MOTORWAYS SPEED ENFORCEMENT
Difference with Recommended Safe Systems Speeds + 20 km/h + 10 km/h + 40 km/h Potential Decrease in Fatal Road Crashes from Enforcement of Safe System Speed Limits
6 times lower 2 times lower 5 times lower
50 km/h
NATIONAL SPEED LIMIT LAW URBAN ROADS
Difference with Recommended Safe Systems Speeds + 20 km/h
6 times lower
Ⅱ. ROAD SAFETY MANAGEMENT Ref: 1
To produce positive road safety outcomes, strong management in all aspects of road safety is key. Presence of a funded lead agency to guide the national road safety effort and implement a Safe Systems approach is recommended.
Bosnia and Herzegovina has a lead agency present, , which is funded in the national budget, and has a road safety strategy which is partially funded. The functions of the agency include coordination, legislation and monitoring and evaluation of road safety strategies. The country has both a fatal and non-fatal road safety target, to reduce fatalities by 50% with a timeline of 2016 - 2022.
Ⅲ. SAFE ROADS AND ROADSIDES Ref: 1,4
Road Infrastrucure Star Rating Results
Surveyed Road Statistics
Vehicle Occupant Travel: 997 million km 74% with no formal footpaths
Pedestrian Travel: 121 million km 96% with no pedestrian crossings
Motorcyclist Travel: 0.06 million km 71% undivided with veh. speeds > 80 kph
Cyclist Travel: 12 million km
Surveyed Road Statistics
Vehicle Occupant Travel: 997 million km
Pedestrian Travel: 121 million km
Motorcyclist Travel: 0.06 billion km
Cyclist Travel: 12 km

74% with no formal footpaths
96% with no pedestrian crossings
71% undivided with veh. speeds > 80 kph

Improved infrastructure provides solid and well understood crash and injury reduction outcomes and are critical for long term and sustainable trauma reduction in line with the Safe Systems Approach. The International Road Safety Assessment Programme (iRAP) provide a business case for safer roads and road star ratings which give a simple and objective measure on the level of safety which is 'built-in' to the road for the road users. 5 Star roads are the safest while 1 star roads are the least safe.

Business Case for Safer Roads
Infrastructure and Speed Management Investment required: $0.75 billion
Annual Investment as a % of GDP (2019-2030): 0.33%
Reduction in fatalities per year: 249
Approximate reduction in fatalities and serious injuries (FSI) over 20 years: 50,000
Economic Benefit: $4.01 billion
B/C Ratio: 5
Ⅳ. SAFE VEHICLES Ref: 1,8
  • 978,229

    total registered vehicles as of 2016

  • 2%

    motorized 2/3 wheelers as of 2016

Country Compliance to the UN Vehicle Safety Regulations
Frontal and Side Impact (Reg. 94, 95) Regulated Regulation of Import of Used Vehicles
Motorcycle Anti-Lock Braking System (Reg. 78) No Import Age Limit
Pedestrian Protection (Reg. 127) No Taxation Based Limits
Electronic Stability Control (Reg. 140) Yes Import Inspections
Seat Belts and Anchorages (Reg. 16, 14) No Periodic Inspection
Frontal and Side Impact (Reg. 94, 95)
Motorcycle Anti-Lock Braking System (Reg. 78)
Pedestrian Protection (Reg. 127)
Electronic Stability Control (Reg. 140)
Seat Belts and Anchorages (Reg. 16, 14)
Regulated Regulation of Import of Used Vehicles
No Import Age Limit
No Taxation Based Limits
Yes Import Inspections
No Periodic Inspection
Ⅴ. SAFE ROAD USERS Ref: 1,8
National Seatbelt, Drink Driving and Helmet Laws (WHO, 2016)
National Seatbelt Law Motorcycle Occupant Age Restriction: Prohibited under 12 yrs
Driver Legal Minimum Driving Age: 18 yrs.
Front National Drink Driving Law
Back Is Law BAC Based?
Motorcycle Helmet Law Random Drink Driving Tests
Helmet Standards % of Road Crach Fatalities Involving Alcohol: 20.8%
National Seatbelt Law
Driver
Front
Back
Motorcycle Helmet Law
Helmet Standards
Motorcycle Occupant Age Restriction: Prohibited under 12 yrs
Legal Minimum Driving Age: 18 yrs.
National Drink Driving Law
Is Law BAC Based?
Random Drink Driving Tests
% of Road Crach Fatalities Involving Alcohol: 208
  • Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) Limits (g/dl)
    General Population ≤0.03
    Young Drivers 0.00
    Professional Drivers 0.00
    General Population ≤0.03
    Young Drivers 0.00
    Professional Drivers 0.00
Ⅵ. POST CRASH CARE Ref: 1,8,9
  • Good post-crash care reduces deaths and reduces disability and suffering for road crash survivors. The emergency medical care system elements and processes need to be effective to attain this objective.

  • National Emergency Care Access Number: National, Multiple Numbers
    Traume Registry System: None
    Country Health Coverage Index - SDG Target 3.8; Target - 100: 57
    Expenditure on Healthcare as % of GDP: 9%

Bosnia and Herzegovina has several emergency numbers. These are 112 (General); 122 (Police); 124 (Ambulance).

REFERENCES
  1. Global Status Report on Road Safety 2018. World Health Organization;
  2. Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME). GBD Results Tool. Seattle, WA: IHME, University of Washington, 2015;
  3. Serious injuries have been calculated assuming a ratio of 15:1 (15 serious injuries for every death). This estimation broadly falls in the range of 30:1 in high income countries to 10:1 in low- and middle-income countries as crashes tend to be more fatal in the later context.
  4. Vaccines for Roads, International Road Assessment Programme (iRAP). Available from https://www.vaccinesforroads.org/;
  5. World Bank Databank for Development Indicators;
  6. M.H. Cameron, R. Elvik. 2010. Nilsson's Power Model connecting speed and road trauma;
  7. Austroads. Balance between harm reduction and mobility in setting speed limits;
  8. UNEP-ITC Background Paper on Used Vehicles Globally and Various Media Sources (Wikipedia and vehicle import websites);
  9. 2018 World Health Statistics, WHO.

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